Rose and Strickland and Strickland
- Rose adhere to the transactionalist as oppossed to the traditional in the following ways:
- against behaviorist
- writing groups -> didn't worry about the grammar as much
- teachers demonstrates with reader/writer (Hegel),"They liked books . . . established dominance"(58).
- Move beyong the "cognitive charade of my freshman year"(48).
- Self actualization (constructivist)
- Ivory Tower, nothing more exclusive than an academic club, against the traditional (Freirian)
Rose and NCTE
- NCTE Point 2 - Rose's Lunch room Group (pictures)
- NCTE Point 3 - Lunch room Group again
- NCTE Point 4 - Writing is a tool for thinking (lunch group)
Lalicker's Basic Writing Program Structures
- Baseline: Prerequisite Model
- "Current-traditional" approach
- Focuses more on grammatical conformity than on rhetorical sophistication
- Assumption that BW isn't really "college-level" writing
- Placement determined by standardized test scores
- Advantages: Simple to administer and staff; inexpensive to provide
- Disadvantages: Stigmatizing elements; arbitrary placement; resentment in students and parents; lack of credit for graduation
- Stretch Model
- Allows BW students to complete a typical introductory standard composition course over two semesters instead of one
- Standard placement methods
- Advantages: More faculty willing to teach since it's credit-bearing; less stigma on students
- Disadvantages: Students have to earn 3 additional credits to graduate; extra tuition to pay; may be illegal in some states
- Studio Model
- Student takes standard composition course, but also attends small group sessions as supplement--may include grammatical and rhetorical issues form comp course and/or writing workshops
- Regular general-ed credit (typically only one hour)
- Placed by recommendation of their comp instructors during 2nd week of classes
- Advantages: Can mitigate stigma; unites curriculum of basic and standard comp; enforces students working collaboratively and equally toward fluency in academic discourse and critical discourse consciousness
- Disadvantages: Registration can be logistically tricky 2 weeks into classes; might cost more; places heavy responsibility on instructors
- Directed Self-Placement Model
- Advisors and WP Administrator suggest or persuade designated students to start w/ BW rather than standard English Comp
- Attitudinal change--students choose to because they know they need it
- Counts for 3 hour non-GE credit course
- Advantages: Students take responsibility for their own literacy--may resent placement less and motivate them more; placement less expensive and time-consuming
- Disadvantages: Students who need the course may slip through the cracks and may self-place inaccurately; loss of income-generating credit hours or critical program mass may lead to a marginalized program w/o resources to serve its constituency; may not be legal in some states
- The Intensive Model
- Offers two kinds of comp sections--regular and "intensive" sections that include additional instruction time or writing activities tailored for basic writers
- Based on common placement methods such as test scores or portfolio ratings
- Generally offer 5 credit hours for the course instead of 3
- Tend to use SAT verbal scores for placement
- Advantages: Removes the BW stigma; increased motivation; doesn't delay the start of general-ed comp; may help unify BW and English Comp writing standards and assessment outcomes
- Disadvantages: One-third fewer credit hours generated by BW than are generated in a prerequisite BW system--budgetary consequences; Tricky to work into instructors' loads
- Mainstreaming Model
- Eliminates BW classes and puts all students into standard comp classes
- Students address deficiencies through their own initiative in the Writing Center or other tutoring options
- Regular general-ed credit
- No placement necessary
- Advantages: Elimination of "outsider" status of BWs?; evidence that some mainstreamed BW students improve their writing faster; eliminate costs of BW placement
- Disadvantages: Some BW students will be overtaxed; possible poorer overall student writing performance, decreased retention and graduation; more diagnostic work for instructors and one-on-one tutoring; regular general-ed comp courses might have to lower standards; loss of budgetary dollars generated by BW courses
Uehling--Boise State University's BW Competencies:
- They have confidence in themselves as writers and readers within a college environment
- They can engage in a multi-faceted process of writing, that includes invention, development, organization, feedback, revision, and editing/proofreading.
- They are willing to use multiple strategies to view, revise, and edit their evolving written texts over time, moving from writer- to reader-based prose.
- They can produce writing that has a beginning, middle, and end developed with relevant details and examples.
- They can produce writing in a format appropriate to its purpose.
- They can read actively and critically and engage in a dialogue with a text.
- They can edit their work for mechanical errors to the extent that, while perhaps not "perfect," surface features of the language do not interfere with communication.
Gibson--From "The Peculiar Case of Contessa"
- "...what I have learned from Contessa is that I can no longer ignore the postmodern condition."
- "...because I was engaged in my own, unarticulated identity negotiation, I failed to recognize an important barrier to Contessa's production of the univocal, modernist writing that is expected in the academy."
- "If I were to teach a kind of postmodern discourse, I would be doing my students a great disservice."
- "I could change my methods for response to essay drafts:"
- "I could...identify the voices I see in the text, bracketing them off or highlighting them so that the student could see how the competition is performed in the text."
- "...I could provide students like Contessa with simple explanations of basic tenets of identity theory so that they might be able to consider for themselves whether the experiences the theory describes are in sync with their own experiences of the world."
Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue"
- "So, if you want to really hurt me, talk badly about my language. Ethnic identity is twin skin to linguistic identity--I am my language. Until I can take pride in my language, I cannot take pride in myself."
- "Chicanas who grew up speaking Chicano Spanish have internalized the belief that we speak poor Spanish. It is illegitimate, a bastard language. And because we internalize how our language has been used against us by the dominant culture, we use our language differences against each other."
CCCC's "Students' Right to Their Own Language"
- Affirms student's right to their own patterns and varieties of language
- "The claim that any one dialect is unacceptable amounts to an attempt of one social group to exert its dominance over another."
- Teachers need training to respect diversity and uphold students' rights to their own language.
- Adopted as policy in 1974.
- Some dialects endowed with more prestige than others--those are called "standard" dialects
- These designations of prestige are not inherent in the dialect but are externally imposed.
- Schools and colleges emphasize one form of language: Edited American English (EAE)
- Reading difficulties may be a result of:
- inadequate vocabulary
- problems in perception
- ignorance of contextual cues that aid in the reading process
- lack of familiarity w/ stylistic ordering
- interference from the emotional bias of the material
- combinations of these
- "Perhaps the most serious difficulty facing 'non-standard' dialect speakers in developing writing ability derives from their exaggerated concern for the least serious aspects of writing."
- "If we can convince our students that spelling punctuation, and usage are less important than content, we have removed a major obstacle in their developing the ability to write."
BW As a Political Act--CH 2
- Emphasis on "conventions" ignores their ideological contexts
- Sondra Perl
- Mina Shaughnessy
- Min-Zhan Lu
- Pays close attention to the academic context in which students' literacies are being developed
- David Bartholomae
- Marxist--questions whether students based in BW courses would be more successful mainstreamed; question elements of the institutional structures whereby BW and basic writers are constructed and perpetuated
- Raymond Williams
- Ira Schor (BW should be abolished--segregation is class system)
- Peter Dow Adams
- Reconceptualization of basic writers and their abilities
- Mike Rose
- Laura Gray-Rosendale
- Glynda Hull
- Critical Pedagogy--"When writers are placed outside of the author function from the onset, they are immediately disempowered; they cannot gain the purchase necessary to work against their exclusion."
- Cultural Pedagogy
- Michelle Hall Kells (dialects--shifting attitudes toward own language)
- Elaine Richardson (developed Afro-centric curriculum)
- BW Class Models
- Illiterate people have literacy sponsors
- To what degree are they enablers of illiteracy?
- Do they help or do they hinder the process of literacy acquisition?
- To what degree are they enablers of illiteracy?
Final Post - Tying General Ideas Together (Trying Anyway)
What is a basic writer?
- The common thread between scholars is the word "underprepared."
What about literacy?
- Carter says that we are all basic in some type of literacy.
Dialects & Culture
- Dialects are value neutral.
- With collaborative learning, students are socialized with different cultures, and this will help them in a globalized world.
- Standardized tests are bad. (nearly everyone)
- Error shows a road to mastery. (Haswell, Shaughnessy, Rose)
- We all bring multiple literacies. (Carter)