• Students coming into college are "basic" in the fact that they are unprepared for critical thinking.
    • "You're not what you thought you were. The alien voice of the lecturer is telling you that something central to your being is, after all, a wish spun in the night, a ruse, the mist and vapor of sleep"(174).
    • "They were the kids who held class offices and saw their names on the honor roll...If they had trouble with mathematics or English or science, they could depend on the fairness of a system that rewarded effort and involvement" (172).
    • "The promise of community and equality is at the center of our most prized national document, yet we're shaped by harsh forces to see difference and to base judgment on it" (241).
    • "It just didn't make sense that not knowing the delicacies of usage or misplacing commas or blundering pronouns and verb forms or composing a twisted sentence indicated arrest at some cognitive-linguistic stage of development, a stage that had to be transversed before you could engage in critical reading and writing" (141).
  • In order to circumvent these issues, a teacher should teach their lessons in the context of a practical application.
    • "Any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form at any stage of development" (Bruner in Rose 142).